South East Regional Industrial Archaeology Conference 1986
"Sea and Ship"
Saturday 12 April 1986, hosted by
Southampton University Industrial Archaeology Group
Medical School, Boldrewood, University of Southampton1000 Introduction and Notices
1015 Chairman's Opening Remarks - Maldwin Drummond
1030 Southampton Docks: A History - Edwin Course
1130 Shipbuilding in Victorian Southampton - Adriaa Rance
1210 The Industrial Archaeology of London's Dockland - Robert Carr
1400 Historic Architecture in Portsmouth Dockyard - Ray Riley
1440 HMS Warrior - Captain John Wells
1540 The Art of Building Ships Down the Ages - James Parrett
1620 Development of Seaside Resorts - Pamela Moore
1720 Chairman's Summing Up and Closing Remarks
1730 End of Conference
Sunday 13 April
1015-1115 Eastern Docks, Southampton
1145-1245 Twyford Water Pumping Station
1430-1600 Portsmouth Dockyard
1630-1715 Southwich Brewhouse
1800 Arrive back at University
Maldwin Drummond, JP DL (Chairman)
Maldwin Drummond is Chairman of the Maritime Trust and the Warrior Preservation Trust. From 1967 to 1972 he headed the Sail Training Association and had earlier been Chairman of the Committee responsible for the design and building of the Sail Training Ships Sir Winston Churchill and Malcolm Miller. He also headed the ship sub-committee of Operation Drake. He is a Trustee of the Mary Rose and of the World Ship Trust. He how chairs the Boat Committee of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Maldwin Drummond was President of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society from 1980 to 1983. He is the Senior Elected Verderer of the New Forest and a Countryside Commissioner. Maldwin Drummond is an author and farms on the edge of the Solent.
Robert Carr PhD
Dr Robert Carr is Research Fellow in the Department of Civil Engineering, North East London Polytechnic, and since January 1980 has been working on the industrial archaeology of London's Dockland. He is the editor (and part author) of a recently published book, Dockland (Thames and Hudson). Robert Carr is a member of the Council of the Association for Industrial Archaeology.
Edwin Course BSc(Econ) PhD FCIT
Dr Edwin Course has taken a keen interest in transport history for many years. He has accumulated a considerable photographic record in addition to a collection of documentary material. This has included the port and shipping industries, and he has now commenced a special study of the history of Southampton Docks in anticipation of the 150th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone in 1838. He is Senior Tutor in Transport Studies and Industrial Archaeology in the University of Southampton.
Pam Moore BA
Pam Moore lectures part-time on industrial history and industrial archaeology. She is a member of the Council of the Association for Industrial Archaeology, and of the Council of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society. Mrs Moore is Secretary of Southampton University Industrial Archaeology Group, of Hampshire Mills Group, of the Twyford Waterworks Trust and of the Project for a Solent Museum of Transport and Industry, a member of the Committee of the Society for Nautical Research (South) and trreasurer of the Portsmouth and South East Hampshire Local Studies Centre. She edited A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight (SUIAG)
James Paffett CEng FR.NA FBI FRSA
James Paffett served an apprenticeship in Portsmouth Dockyard, then qualified as a Naval Architect at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, in 1945. He held various appointments in the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, and was Professor of Naval Architecture at the Royal Naval College from 1962 to 1967. He then moved to civil work as Superintendent of the Ship Division, National Physical Laboratory, and ended his career as General Manager of the National Maritime Institute, Feltham. Mr Paffett retired from the Civil Service in 1981. He is Vice-President of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, a Fellow of the Nautical Institute, and a member of the General Management Committee of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution.
Adrian Rance BA AMA
Adrian Rance is Curator of the Southampton City Art Gallery and Museums. He was the author of Shipbuilding in Victorian Southampton (SUIAG) and editor of Seaplanes and Flying Boats of the Solent. Mr Rance is currently working on the history of the British Powerboat Company.
Ray Riley BSc(Econ) PhD
Dr Ray Riley is a Principal Lecturer, in the Department of Geography, Portsmouth Polytechnic. He is a former Chairman of the Portsmouth Royal Dockyard Historical Society and the author of a number of works, including Portsmouth Paper No 44 on The Evolution of the Docks and Industrial Buildings in Portsmouth Royal Dockyard 1698-1914.
John Wells CBE DSC RN
Captain John Wells served in the Royal Navy for 35 years, his last command being the guided missile destroyer HMS Kent. After his retirement in 1964 he was general manager responsible for the building and operation of the Aviemore Centre in Scotland. In 1980 he published Whaley - the story of HMS Excellent 1830 -1980 and in 1981 became the Research Consultant for the reconstruction of HMS Warrior in Hartlepool. As well as being the Liaison Officer to the Portsmouth City Council and Chairman of the Warrior Association, he is the author of the definitive history of HMS Warrior to be published early in 1987. Captain Wells comes of a naval family, his father being involved in the original restoration of HMS Victory, and his grandfather serving in the mid-Victorian navy.
Synopses of Papers
Southampton Docks: A History
The recorded history of Southampton as a port begins in Roman times, and although punctuated with periods of inactivity, continues to the present day. However, the history of the dock system is briefer, beginning with the first Act of Parliament in 1836 and the laying of a foundation stone in 1838. Before the Second World War, rail links were crucial for any dock system, and they continue to be of great importance. For many years, Southampton was essentially a railway port, with a dock system owned by a railway company. Although stress was always laid on connections with the Midlands and North, during the railway period Southampton was almost an outport of London. Traffic was varied, but passengers and high value cargo were particularly important. In the period before and after the Second World War, Southampton was associated particularly with the transatlantic liners. In recent years, great changes have taken place, with passengers giving place to such things as containers and motor cars.
Shipbuilding in Victorian Southampton
The lecture covers the various factors which determine the development of shipbuilding in Southampton throughout the 19th and into the early 20th century. These factors include sources of raw material, labour, transport costs, the impact of local shipowners and the National Shipbuilding cycle. The history of the industry falls into several parts; the naval shipbuilding of the period 1800 - 1850 which grew as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. This was followed by the local shipbuilding industry covering the period 1815 to circa 1860 which provided merchant schooners and other ships for international and coastal trade. A technically important aspect of this phase was the delopment of steam propulsion following the introduction of paddle steamers on the Isle of Wight ferry service. The wooden shipbuilding industry gradually emerged with the heavy dependence on pleasure yacht building. Iron shipbuilding starts in 1836 but, unlike the growth of the industry on the river Thames, it was not until the 1860s that a large number of iron ships were built. This boom was dependent on the presence of large shipping lines in the port of Southampton. A further boost came in the l870s with the opening of the Woolston yard which broke away from the prevailing pattern of the British shipbuilding industry, which was concentrating on the north of England and in Scotland. The Oswald Mordaunt yard moved south of Sunderland to build large numbers of iron and steel sailing deadweight carriers. The shipbuilding cycle in Southampton came full circle at the beginning of the 20th century with the move of John I Thorneycroft and a heavy dependence on naval shipbuilding.
The Industrial Archaeology of London's Dockland
The illustrated talk to be given today deals first with the history of London's up-river docks, essentially from the late 18th century but with an introduction sketching preceding centuries. A slide tour will follow, picking out sites of industrial archaeological interest from St Katherine's to Beckton.. You will see a mixture of period and modern views. The recent photographs date mostly from 1979 to 1985, but much that was photographed in the early 1980s has already been demolished.
Historic Architecture in Portsmouth Dockyard
A chronological framework is used to trace the evolution of surviving Dockyard buildings and docks. Docks are taken first since they are not only of crucial importance, but also they have been surprisingly neglected by researchers, certainly by architectural historians. The development of the inverted arch, and subsequent modification in dock construction may be charted at Portsmouth, as may the evolution of the dock gate. Most of the early production shops have lost their original function, but fortunately their use as stores has ensured the survival of their structure, if not their contents; they include a ropehouse, general workshops, a block mill, boathouses, a smithery, foundries and engineering shops - collectively an outstanding cluster of 18th and 19th century industrial buildings. The 18th century emphasis on tall, slim storehouses contrasts with 20th century practice; fortunately there are many of both at Portsmouth. Of the general services, little remains from the gas era, and only the sheds of the power station and of the hydraulic power houses, but there is sound evidence of the former importance of the 25 mile railway system, including level crossings, bridge abutments, the resplendent Royal Shelter and granite slabs of the convict-powered tramway.
The 19th century background - industrial revolution and rise of French Navy. Introduction of steam propulsion by paddle and screw. Anglo-French participation in war against Russia 1854 and the lessons learnt. Renewal of French naval challenge to Britain and building of world's first ironclad - Gloire. Admiralty's reaction in laying down iron hulled armoured frigate Warrior in May 1859 at Thames Ironworks, Blackwall. Statistics and building problems. Launch on 29 December 1860 and fitting out at Victoria Docks with engines then masts, spars and sails. Commissioned 1 August 1861 by Captain Arthur Cochrane, 50 officers and 650 men. Passage from Greenhithe to Portsmouth. Speed trials followed by heavy weather trials. After refit to Channel Squadron, arrival of Jackie Fisher as gunnery officer. Cruise round Britain. Second commission in Channel Squadron. Towing floating dock to Bermuda. Third commission with Coastguard and Reserve squadron. Paid off 1883. Joined HMS Vernon as part of floating torpedo school until 1924. Refitted as oil fuel jetty and towed to Llannion Cove, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven. Rescued by Maritime Trust in 1979. Towed to Hartlepool· for repair and reconstruction. Financed by Manifold Trust, The Warrior Preservation Trust began enormous and costly task of reconstruction. Portsmouth build jetty to berth Warrior in 1987. Portsmouth Naval Heritage Project.
The Art of Building Ships down the Ages
This paper outlines the basic requirements which must be met by the designer and builder of any ship. The treatment then concentrates on one particular aspect: the way in which design and construction are governed by the building materials available, and the methods of joining such materials together to form a ship's hull. The techniques of building in natural materials, in particular wood, are outlined, from prehistoric times to the present, emphasising the limits imposed on the size and performance of ships by the materials and methods of joining. Examples quoted include Mary Rose.
The great liberation of the ship designer, made possible by the availability of wrought iron and then steel, is then discussed, with some reference to shipyard working conditions in riveting days and some reminiscences of Portsmouth Dockyard. More recent developments including welding and the use of aluminium and reinforced synthetic materials are touched upon to bring the earlier stages into perspective.
The Development of Seaside Resorts
Until the second half of the 18th century, the British, tending towards an aversion to cold water, avoided their own seashores. Then, as a growing number of physicians advocated both taking the waters internally, and bathing in the sea, a number of towns developed into the coastal equivalent of the spa, to be visited by the well-to-do for health reasons. As the 19th century progressed, however, the concept of the seaside resort changed - mainly with the coming of the railway. For the first time, the coast was accessible to ordinary men and women, who visited either for the day, or, especially as the century progressed, for a longer stay. This paper will aim to examine the growth of three resorts in particular - Eastbourne, Southsea and Ventnor, Isle of Wight - noting the similarities, but equally the differences in their development.